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Fiji has been an independent republic since 1987, but does not possess Oh air force. An air wing of government aircraft has, however, recently been formed. The national flag is normally used as a fin marking.
Finland became independent after the break-up of the Russian Empire. Blue and white had always been the Finns' national colours so they were chosen for the national flag and the air force's insignia. Count von Rosen of Sweden was very involved with the setting up of the first Finnish Air Force so his personal swastika emblem was used as a wing and fuselage marking in blue on a white disc. This was sometimes painted on the rudder.
The forces of the U.S.S.R. invaded Finland in 1939. With the German invasion of Russia in 1941, Finland threw in her lot with Germany. The country was forced to sign a peace treaty with the U.S.S.R. in 1944 and to declare war on Germany. A swastika marking was obviously inappropriate, so a white, blue, white roundel was adopted. 1980s low visibility trends saw a considerable reduction in size of the insignia.
To France goes the honour of being the first country officially to implement a military aircraft insignia, pursuant to a decree dated 26 July 1912. The colours of red, white and blue, used since the revolution, were marked as a roundel or cockade on the wings; the rudder was striped in these national colours. Marking of the roundel on the fuselage has only been normal since 1918. This marking is still in current use.
Polish airmen who flew for France in the 1940 campaign were allowed to mark the Polish national insignia on the fuselage sides, while retaining standard French markings on the wings and rudder. After the French defeat in 1940, the country's armed forces split, and took opposing sides. The Vichy French Air Force, which collaborated with the Germans, used normal insignia, but owing to the possibility of confusion with RAF roundels, aircraft were additionally marked with red and yellow stripes on the fin, cowlings and tail planes. Other features were a full-length white fuselage stripe, and occasional use of thin red, white and blue under wing stripes. The Free French Air Force used normal RAF or U.S. markings but in addition a red, or sometimes blue, Cross of Lorraine on a white disc. Later, French roundels were used and the Cross of Lorraine was marked equal in size to these on the wings, and sometimes replacing the roundel on fuselage sides. In the late 1940s French aircraft followed Allied practice by marking roundels and fin flashes with a much reduced white area.
From the 1960s to the 1980s it was normal to outline roundels with a thin yellow border, but this has now largely been discontinued.
Since about 1925 naval aircraft have marked a black anchor on the roundel and fin flash or rudder striping.