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Iceland has never possessed any armed forces, but government-owned aircraft engaged in fisheries protection and coastguard duties have carried normal civil registrations and the national flag on the fin. Some have been noted with a band round the fuselage in the national colours.
The Indian Air Force was first formed on 1 April 1933. Normal RAF markings were used. In 1943, owing to confusion with Japanese markings, especially in regard to the upper wing roundel it was decided to outline all the roundels with a thick yellow line. This was not implemented, although a few aircraft may have been so marked. With effect from 24 June 1943 South East Asia Command markings were used. These initially dispensed with the red in the markings and later adopted a small roundel and fin flash in two shades of blue.
The force became the Royal Indian Air Force in March 1945 and began to use standard RAF roundels once again. On independence, in 1947, Indian aircraft used the blue on white Buddhist wheel of life, the 'dharma chakra', as a wing and fuselage marking. The fin flash used the Indian national colours of saffron yellow, white and green. In 1948 a roundel in the national colours replaced the wheel.
It is believed that an Indian National Air Force was being organised by the Japanese to fight the 'occupying colonial power'. If these aircraft carried any markings there is no record of them.
During the Japanese occupation it is believed that anti-Dutch, pro-Japanese units adopted an aircraft marking of a red square with a black border. This has to be confirmed. After the Japanese defeat in 1945, the former Dutch East Indies became a battleground between the colonial power attempting to regain control and the Indonesian nationalists. The Indonesian People's Security Force, Aviation Division, was formed on 9 April 1946, The motley collection of mostly ex-Japanese aircraft were marked with the traditional colours of red and white, This entailed painting over the lower half of the red Japanese marking, and a red over white rudder. Ex-Dutch aircraft, carrying the flag insignia, simply had the blue portion painted out. With the full independence of Indonesia on 27 December 1949 an air force was formed. Various red and white markings were used, culminating in a plain two-colour roundel and fin flash, By 1954 this was changed to a white pentagon with a red border, The red over white national flag was used as a fin flash. Navy and army aviation units were formed in the 1960s, Navy aircraft carried a black anchor on the white pentagon, army units a yellow or black five-pointed star; the paramilitary police had their own badge. Current low-visibility markings feature a black outline pentagon.
When the Imperial Iranian Air Force was established in the 1920s a version of the national flag, green over white over red, was used as a wing and fuselage marking. The rudder was also painted in these colours. A roundel form was soon adopted, with red in the centre. In 1979 the air force became the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, but the markings have not changed, with the exception of some alteration to the national flag fin flash.
With very few, slight modifications the wing and fuselage marking of aircraft of the Iraqi Air Force did not change between its formation in 1931, and 2003. This has been a green triangle with a black border. Superimposed on this has been a representation of the Arabic word 'Jaish', for army, in red.
It is in the fin and rudder markings that the many political changes in the country have been mirrored. Between 1931 and 1958, when the monarchy was overthrown, the rudder was marked with vertical stripes of the four national colours: green, white, red and black. This later became a fin flash. The fin flash in use between 1958 and 1962 was vertically striped in black, white and green. On the white was a red eight-pointed star. In 1962 horizontal striping of red, white and black was used. Three green outlined eight-pointed stars appeared in the white. Since 28 August 1963 three green five-pointed stars have been marked on the white. Initially these represented the proposed union of Egypt, Syria and Iraq, which never took place.
Since the formation of the new Iraqi Air force in 2004 aircraft bore only the national flag. The roundel of red white and black with three green stars across the centre has been proposed but so far never used. A new roundel was adopted in 2011. This is red, white and red, the outer red inscribed with IRAQI AIR FORCE in black. The emblem of the air force is superimposed over all.
Ireland's military aviation commenced with the establishment of the Free State in 1921. Ex-RAF aircraft were marked with the new national flag of orange, white and green, which represented the Protestant and Catholic communities and the hope for peace between them. In 1922 a roundel form of the national colours was used on the wings and vertical rudder striping. By 1923 a standard insignia had been adopted. This consisted simply of stripes across the wings in the national colours, and the normal rudder striping, Ireland was neutral in the Second World War and used a 'Celtic boss' insignia in green and orange on tops of wings and fuselage, while retaining the stripes on the lower wings and dispensing with the rudder markings. The fuselage insignia was placed on a white square on camouflaged aircraft. In 1954 the boss became three colour with the addition of white.
The ancient Jewish symbol of the Star of David has been used on Israeli military aircraft since the state's independence in 1948. It has been used on wings and fuselage almost always on a white disc. Some very early aircraft in a silver finish dispensed with the white disc. No rudder markings have been used, except occasionally in the 1950s when red and white diagonal stripes were marked.
Italy was one of the first countries to use aircraft in war, in 1911. Aircraft up to 1914 sometimes used the arms of the ruling House of Savoy as a fin marking. Between August 1914 and the entry of Italy into the First World War in April 1915 markings consisted of a simple black ring and various combinations of black stripes. From 1915 the lower wings of aircraft were painted red on one side and green on the other, the national colours. With the full involvement of Italy in the war markings followed the Allied pattern of a roundel and rudder striping in red, white and green. Between 1918 and the Fascist government of 1922 roundels were sometimes used, but the basic marking was a rudder striping with the arms of Savoy on the white area. The Fascist regime added its emblem -the fasces, a bundle of brown wood around a silver axe head on a small blue disc forward on the fuselage.
Italy joined with Germany and declared war on the Allies in 1940. The rudder striping was painted out, and a simple white cross, usually bearing the arms of Savoy, was marked across the fin and rudder. The small fasces emblem was retained on the fuselage. Each wing was marked with a black circle, and inside these three representations of the fasces in black. The background to the circle was either white or clear, and occasionally the colours were reversed, white fasces on a black disc with a white border. Some captured French aircraft featured the fasces across the original roundel.
Italy surrendered in 1943 and split into two separate areas, each with its own air force. In the south of the country, occupied by the Allies, a Co-Belligerent Air Force was formed. This used red, white and green roundel without fin or rudder markings. Some US supplied aircraft retained the US style bars to the roundel. In the German occupied north, the Italian Socialist Republic adopted a square version of the fasces insignia. The Italian flag was marked on fuselage sides and across the fin rudder.
After the war the Co-Belligerent marking was used for all Italian aircraft. From 1964 Italian Navy aircraft were marked with a black anchor in a black circle as an addition to the roundel. The need for low-visibility markings has seen the introduction of a smaller roundel with a very thin white area.
Aircraft of the independent Sovereign Military Order of Malta, based in Rome, have occasionally carried the order's cross insignia on the fuselage, retaining standard Italian roundels on the wings.
This ex-French colony gained its independence in 1960 and formed its air arm in 1961. Aircraft are marked with a roundel and fin flash based on the national colours of orange, for the north of the country, green for the south, and white for unity between them.