The Luxembourg defence forces no longer possess an aviation complement, but for political reasons NATO aircraft are registered in the Grand Duchy. The NATO symbol, a four-pointed compass design in blue, appears in normal positions on wings, fuselage and fin. Since the mid-1980s aircraft have also carried a roundel based on the national arms of Luxembourg. This is a red lion on a blue and white striped disc.
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This country, once known as South West Africa, became independent in 1990. A defence force has recently been formed. Originally its aircraft did not carry national insignia, only the national flag and a serial number beginning 'NDF'. Since 2011 Namibian Air Force aircraft bear the arms of the air force on a white disc. This contains the national arms of Namibia, blue wings and black supporting wreaths
The air wing of the Royal Nepal Army was formed in the mid1960s, and became the Royal Nepal Air Force in 1979. Aircraft are marked with a red six-sided star bearing a black trident. The fin flash is the uniquely shaped Nepalese national flag: two joined red right-angled triangles.
Military air activity in the Netherlands began with the formation of an army balloon unit in 1886. An aviation unit of the Royal Netherlands Army was founded on 1 July 1913. Immediately after the start of the First World War the Dutch marked their aircraft with orange discs on the wings and rudder to demonstrate the country's neutrality. By a decree of 17 April 1917 the discs were marked on wings and fuselage, whilst the rudder was painted orange. On 11 June 1921 the national insignia was completely changed. The national colours of red, white and blue were used as a segmented circle. In the centre was an orange spot to represent the royal house. The rudder was striped red, white and blue horizontally.
With the start of the Second World War the Netherlands once again wished to affirm its neutrality. Again orange was used, but as an inverted triangle with a black border, German forces invaded the country in May 1940 and within days the Netherlands was forced to surrender. Exiled Dutch forces operating from Britain used normal RAF, markings but with an orange and black triangle on the fin. In 1946 the segmented circle insignia was reintroduced, with the addition of the national flag as a fin flash and a smaller orange spot. Since 1959 the insignia has been marked above the port and below the starboard wings as well as on the fuselage, and the use of the fin flash has been discontinued. Low-visibility trends of the 1980s have produced a much smaller marking.
Netherlands East Indies
Military aircraft were based in the East Indies from 1914 and used the segmented disc insignia. It is possible that the orange disc was not used to avoid confusion with Japanese aircraft. With the Japanese threat of 1941 it was replaced with the orange and black inverted triangle. Following the Japanese occupation Dutch forces, which had escaped, to India and Australia used a representation of the national flag as a wing and fuselage marking. This was officially recognised on 12 March 1942. After the war some aircraft used RAF markings with an orange triangle on the fin, some used the flag marking, and some returned to the segmented circle. Netherlands forces withdrew from the area on the independence of the colony as Indonesia in 1949.
The Netherlands West Indies Defence Force was active in the Caribbean area between 1940 and 1945. Aircraft used the flag-type marking.
The first official New Zealand Air Force was founded in 1923, although several attempts had been made to organise a military aviation unit before the First World War.
Until 1942 New Zealand followed RAF practice in aircraft markings, but during the war with Japan many variations were used. The central red area was made progressively smaller until it was merely a dot. The central spot colour was changed to blue, and although not as small as the red spot had become, it was still much smaller than the standard RAF roundel. Many New Zealand aircraft used in this period were supplied by the United States and often carried bars attached to the roundel. These were outlined in blue on pale surfaces. Fin flashes from 1942 to 1945 became very thin.
After the war a return was made to standard RAF markings. In 1957 a specific New Zealand marking was devised, a white fern placed on the central red of the roundel. Because of remarks that this looked like a white feather it was soon changed to silver, but on aluminium aircraft this looked like worn paint. From 10 October 1970 a red kiwi replaced the central red spot. Recent low-visibility markings consist of simply a red kiwi on a blue disc. Throughout this period standard RAF fin flashes have been used.
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The turbulent recent history of this Central American republic has been mirrored in its frequent changes of aircraft markings. After several false starts in the 1920s, the Aviation Corps seems to have been organised by 1927. This force was crewed by American mercenaries and flew against rebel forces. Aircraft carried the national coat of arms on the fuselage, It was 1936 before more military aircraft reached Nicaragua, Now known as the National Guard Aviation Corps they bore red, white and blue horizontal rudder striping.
From the mld-1940s up to the mid-1950s the fuselage roundel was coloured blue, yellow and red. During this period the wing marking was a white triangle on a blue disc with a red border. The rudder was marked with seven horizontal blue stripes on white with a thin yellow stripe next to the hinge. From about 1962 the fuselage roundel was changed to the insignia of the air corps, a blue disc with red border and a complex marking in yellow and red. The stripe next to the hinge line was changed to red, but this was very gradual with both colours being used for many years and some aircraft having just the blue and white stripes. Up until the 1980s the triangle marking was used on the wings.
With the victory of the Sandinistas in the early 1980s, the markings changed yet again. Aircraft bore the legend 'Fuerza Aerea Sandinista', and on the fin the letters 'FAS' and a black and red flash. By 1990 a new roundel in black, red and orange with a central orange star was in use. Some aircraft also carried the blue, white and blue Nicaraguan national flag as a fin flash. Since the electoral defeat of the Sandinistas the red, orange and black markings have gradually disappeared, although still listed as the official Nicaraguan marking. It appears that the future marking will simply consist of the national flag as the fin marking.
This Saharan ex-French colony established its air force in 1961. The national flag, which has always been used as a fin flash or rudder marking, is orange for the desert of the north, green for the forests of the south, and divided by the white for purity. On the white is marked an orange sun. Initially the wing and fuselage marking was a segmented circle in the three colours with a central orange spot. It is now a roundel divided horizontally as the national flag.
The Nigerian Air Force was formed in 1964 and has always used the national colours of green and white as a roundel and fin flash. The fin has often carried a roundel instead of, or as well as, the flag. Navy aircraft now carry a black anchor superimposed on the roundel and fin flash. A modified version of the roundel was introduced in 2009, although the previous marking is still in use
Between 30 May 1967 and January 1970, the Republic of Biafra was independent of Nigeria and for the whole period fought a bitter war with its larger neighbour. Biafra's few aircraft were marked with the national colours of red, black and green in roundel form on fuselage side and under wings, and in flag form on fin. Some aircraft used the flag as a fuselage marking.
Norway first acquired military aircraft in 1912, and from about 1915 up to 1945 the army and navy had separate forces. They did, however, share the same markings, which were stripes across the wings and vertical on the rudder in red, white and blue in the proportions of the national flag. After the fall of Norway in 1940, many Norwegians were trained in Britain, Canada and the U.SA The British Norwegian squadrons carried a small national flag in addition to standard RAF markings, and from about 1944 pre-1940 Norwegian rudder striping. Aircraft in North America carried Norwegian markings. Those on operational use off North America bore a combination of U.S, and Norwegian markings.
For a brief period after the liberation a roundel similar in colours and order to that of France, with a thin white portion may have been used on 'liberated' German aircraft. A new Royal Norwegian Air Force was established on 21 November 1945.The roundel was designed consisting of a blue ring around a triangular representation of the national flag. No tail markings are carried. Recent changes to low-Visibility markings have produced a black outline form of insignia.