The Danish Army and Navy operated separate air arms from 1912 until the formation of the Royal Danish Air Force in 1950. The red flag with a white cross is reputed to date from 1219, and a swallowtail version was marked on the rudders of all naval aircraft. Army aircraft used the simple red and white roundel on wings and fuselage and, initially, on the rudder. Denmark was occupied by German forces between 1940 and 1945, but Danish-marked aircraft were used in Greenland and in training on Allied bases. The projected Danish Brigade, formed in Sweden in 1945 but never used, also used Danish markings on its aircraft.
Since 1950 all aircraft have used the roundels and the swallowtail. Army aircraft use normal markings, Navy aircraft often use a crown, rope and anchor design in addition to the normal markings. The low-visibility trend of the 1980s has resulted in a reduction in size of markings.
History This small African country was previously known as French Somaliland, and then as the French Territory of the Afars and Issas, An air arm was formed in 1979 but defence and internal policing has been dealt with by French forces based in the country. The national flag, which is used as a fin flash, contains green for the Afars and blue for the Issas. The first insignia was a roundel split into three segments blue, green and white with a red star on the white. The roundel now in use follows normal practice of concentric colours with a star on the central, white spot.
The Dominican Republic occupies the eastern two thirds of the island of Hispaniola in the West Indies. The first attempt at forming an air arm took place in 1930. These first aircraft were painted with a red, white and blue cheatline along the fuselage. From 1933 the rudders of Dominican aircraft were marked with the national flag of a white cross on a red and blue field. A roundel form was used on the wings.
After the reorganisation of the air arm in 1948 it became normal practice to mark the roundel on the fuselage sides and the national flag on the fin, although many aircraft still used the entire rudder. Full camouflage and low-visibility small insignia have been in use since the early 1980s.